And was fully commissioned now. Specific dates, the number of radar stations, their location and other details have not been disclosed. Heute werden bessere Technologien für das Überhorizontradar eingesetzt. Currently on duty are three stations - in the Sea of Okhotsk, the Sea of Japan, and the Caspian Sea.[15]. Der Sendeimpuls benötigt in diesem Fall bei gleichem Energiegehalt eine geringere Impulsleistung. Echos reflected off the target return to the transmitter location by the same path. Er muss mehr Energie enthalten, als die Summe aller möglichen Dämpfungen auf dem Hin- und Rückweg das Echosignal abschwächen könnte, so dass es im Empfänger nicht mehr registriert werden könnte. Built outside Gomel, near Chernobyl, it was aimed northward and covered the continental United States. As it detects the objects beyond the radar horizon range with the help of ionosphere, it Jindalee uses 560 kW compared to the United States' OTH-B's 1 MW, yet offers far better range than the U.S. 1980s system, due to the considerably improved electronics and signal processing.[17]. [citation needed], In early 2014, the Russians announced a new system, called Container, that was to see over 3000 km. Weather Radar   Die Berechnung der Entfernung ist deswegen schwierig und erhält Ungenauigkeiten. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 29. On December 1st, the first over-the-horizon 29B6 “Container” radar station in Russia was commissioned, Ministry of Defense outlet Zvezda reported. Page last modified: The figure depicts OTH radar used for long range detection of aeroplanes and ships. Cobra Mist used an enormous 10 MW transmitter and could detect aircraft over the western Soviet Union from its location in Suffolk. Two techniques are most commonly used; shortwave systems that refract their signals off the ionosphere for very long-range detection,[1] and surface wave systems, which use low frequency radio waves[2] that, due to diffraction, follow the curvature of the Earth to reach beyond the horizon. The first OTH-SW system deployed appears to be a Soviet system positioned to watch traffic in the Sea of Japan. The over-the-horizon station will be monitoring the airspace and detection of all types of aerodynamic targets, including planes, helicopters, drones and cruise missiles. It is used in the defence of Australia, and can also monitor maritime operations, wave heights and wind directions. Bundeswehr – Marder IFVs: Thermal imaging aiming devices from Rheinmetall, Distinguished Greek MIT Professor Kostas Tsipis Passes Away, RUSSIA: Putin’s curve shot in Nagorno-Karabakh achieves the best of a bad situation, Elbit Systems of America among USAF selections for JADC2 task orders. Die Ausbreitung der elektromagnetischen Wellen muss sich entweder durch Beugung an die Erdoberfläche anpassen, oder gezielt an der Appleton-Schicht der Ionosphäre reflektiert werden. Größte Herausforderung ist die Überwindung der Erdkrümmung. UMTS  This new radar station of the Russian Aerospace Defense Forces is capable of detecting air targets at a distance of 3000 km and is one of the means of intelligence and warning of air-space attack by the enemy. Das Antennenfeld kann Ziele innerhalb der 200 Meilenzone in einem Sektor von 120° beobachten. Blue Canyon Technologies acquired by Raytheon Tech. Other early UK/US systems from the same era include: The United States Air Force Rome Laboratory had the first complete success with their AN/FPS-118 OTH-B. The frequency of radio waves used by most radars, in the form of microwaves, travel in straight lines. Das Überhorizontradar (auch OTH für Over The Horizon genannt) stellt eine Möglichkeit dar, Radarechos ohne quasi-optischen Sichtkontakt weit über die Erdkrümmung hinaus zu erhalten. FMCW RADAR Terminology   This signal gets reflected from the target and returns back to the receiving antenna The “Container” is able to track flights of any air targets at a distance of about 3 thousand kilometers in a sector of 240 degrees. Die leistungsstarken pulsförmigen frequenzbandbreiten Signale des Überhorizontradars stören den Kurzwellenrundfunk in dem Frequenzbereich von 10 MHz bis 20 MHz großflächig und teilweise erheblich. It is used as early warning radar applications. Analogs of such stations worked at Chernobyl and Nikolaev in Ukraine, as well as in Komsomolsk-in-Amur. The transmitter's part is built near the town Damit wird der nutzbare Frequenzbereich stark eingeschränkt. The Container radar [Konteyner RLS] is an over-the-horizon unit built to detect all types of aerodynamic targets. bei 4 MHz wird die maximale Reichweite mit 250 km angegeben (Quelle: A. Dzvonkovskaya, D. Figueroa, K.-W. Gurgel, H. Rohling, T. Schlick, Pressemitteilung der HELZEL Messtechnik GmbH (, Chinesische Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radare (OTH-B) auf, Russia's new radar to monitor all Europe including Britain, Artikel in der Pravda vom 28. The first over-the-horizon radar station was commissioned on the territory of Mordavia. With the new over-the-horizon radar station, the Russian Aerospace Forces can monitor a large region that includes all of Europe, including the vast majority of NATO countries. Most systems used a second transmitter broadcasting directly up at the ionosphere to measure its movement and adjust the returns of the main radar in real-time. Die Sendefrequenz für dieses Verfahren liegt zwischen 15 MHz und 55 MHz. In the same year, the first tests started. In a recent interview with the Director General of NIIDAR (which developed the radar) it was mentioned that the Radar “Container” needs powerful electronic computing technology with special software. Creeping waves are the scattering into the rear of an object due to diffraction, which is the reason both ears can hear a sound on one side of the head, for instance, and was how early communication and broadcast radio was accomplished. In the Russian Aerospace Forces, the Container-type over-the-horizon detection surveillance radar combat crews entered the combat duty (Kovylkino settlement in the Republic of Mordovia). In the 1990s and the 2000s, the NIIDAR institute developed its Teletz, Volna, Podsolnukh and Laguna radars, which utilize the ability of short radio waves to travel beyond the horizon due to diffraction amid surface relief elements. Gorodets (Cyrillic: Городец), Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. Für die Beugung muss das Radar im unteren Kurzwellenbereich, für die Reflexion muss das Radar im mittleren bis oberen Kurzwellenbereich arbeiten. [citation needed] Its loud and repetitive pulses in the middle of the shortwave radio bands led to its being known as the "Russian Woodpecker" by amateur radio (ham) operators. Das entspricht der halben Wellenlänge in dem genutzten Radarband von etwa 3 MHz. HF-Band RADAR, ©RF Wireless World 2012, RF & Wireless Vendors and Resources, Free HTML5 Templates. Durch die Laufzeitunterschiede bei einer Mehrfachreflexion ist dieses Konzept jedoch ungenau. The OTH radar can detect objects as far as 1000 to 3000 Km. When system testing started in 1972, however, an unexpected source of noise rendered it largely unusable. [26], "Over-the-horizon" redirects here. On December 1st, the first over-the-horizon 29B6 “Container” radar station in Russia was commissioned, Ministry of Defense outlet Zvezda reported. Schwächere frequenzbandbreite Störungen treten jedoch immer noch auf. To add to the confusion, sfn error: no target: CITEREFLaurie1974 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFFrissell_&_Hockersmith2008 (. I/Q Raw Recording — Audio Sample: Ghadir, is an Iranian over the horizon radar Ghadir is a 360°, 3D-radar, with a ceiling of 300 km, and a maximum range of 1,100 km. A more recent addition is the Jindalee Operational Radar Network developed by the Australian Department of Defence in 1998 and completed in 2000. It commonly overlaps Amateur and broadcast shortwave bands. The receiving antenna and the main part of the radar are built near The next serious Soviet project was Duga, built outside Nikolayev on the Black Sea coast near Odessa. Fowle, E.L. Key, R.I. Millar, and R.H. Sear, On Onera web, the French aerospace laboratory, one can find, "Podsolnukh-E over-the-horizon surface-wave radar", "British Bases in Cyprus and Signals Intelligence", AN/FPS-118 Over-The-Horizon-Backscatter (OTH-B) Radar, "Final Environmental Assessment for Equipment Removal at Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar - West Coast Facilities", "Photos of the TULELAKE AFS AN/FPS-118 OTH-B RADAR FACILITY",, Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar #91; OTH-B #93, "High Frequency Surface Wave Radar -HFSWR | Maerospace Corporation", Landmark Land Use Agreement For High Frequency Surface Radar, "Seeing Beyond: Over the Horizon Radar Systems and HF Propagation", A Canadian Perspective on High-Frequency Over-the-Horizon Radar, The Development of Over-the-Horizon Radar in Australia,, Articles with dead external links from July 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The coverage could be extended with additional receivers, providing for complete coverage over a 180-degree arc (each 60 degree portion known as a "sector"). The hardware equipment and antennas are connected to each other via multiple cable lines. Given certain conditions in the atmosphere, radio signals transmitted at an angle into the sky will be refracted towards the ground by the ionosphere, allowing them to return to earth beyond the horizon. The first over-the-horizon radar station was commissioned on the territory of Mordavia. Let us understand how it works. [1] OTH systems are thus very expensive to build, and essentially immobile. Die Radarsignalverarbeitung muss dann die Schwellwerte für die Signalerkennung an die ebenfalls registrierten Reflexionen an der Erdoberfläche (Clutter) entsprechend dem Auftreten dieser Störungen durch eine dynamische zeitabhängige Verstärkungsregelung anpassen. As the names imply, both of the NRL systems relied on the comparison of returned signals stored on magnetic drums. Es werden oft elektronische Schwenkverfahren mit Phased-Array-Antennen genutzt. Additionally, the range was extended to 3,000 miles (4,800 km), crossing the equator. The system is able to track the movement of air targets at a distance of approximately 3,000 km from the Russia border.