ùm�g�`�C�A ��_~����}��J? These are also used as reagents and solvents. Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept, 7. Carbonyl Compounds and Nucleophilic Addition Md. �V ��ޔ��{. ; The three oxygen sp 2 AO’s are involved as follows: The two unshared electorn pairs of oxygen occupy two of these AO’s, and the third is involved in sigma bond formation to the carbonyl carbon. – Carboxylic Acid & Its derivatives, Preparation of aldehydes and ketones from esters. Both the carbon and oxygen atoms are hybridized sp 2, so the system is planar. �Y/aT �w�(4aE.u��]������7Ԭed�S��Zh��%�՜����4�)WT�t�����&�� ��& *���m�Rqn����7q�����D$Hj�5O�*XR�EI�F�6��%��� ,uh� ���C6����= ���_�]�_D��G Carbonyls are compounds with a C=O bond. (note: no locant, -CH=O is carbon #1.) These have been made according to the syllabus 9701 and cover all the relevant topics for examination in March/June. Saiful Islam BPharm, MSc North South University Fb Group: Pharmacy Universe ... Parent chain = longest continuous carbon chain containing the carbonyl group; alkane, drop –e, add –al. x��Z[s۶~׌��N 7��I2c+Υ'�\۝���4M�n-ѥ�6��gwAJ�FID9�8� ���.v�a�S�������k�zŎ^���y�Ƴ~��~/b��O,"eXG��UE���l��������O����I6. s��߆BS@��W�6�ˎ�>�T endobj They can be either aldehydes or ketones If the C=O is on the end of the chain with an H attached it is an aldehyde. %PDF-1.5 2 0 obj 4 0 obj <> CARBONYL COMPOUNDS Contain C=O group Examples include Alkanals/Aldehyde RHC=O Alkanones/ Ketones RR 1 C=O Alkanoic acids/ Carboxylic acids RCOOH Alkanoates/ Esters RCOOR 1 Alkanoyl halide/Acyl halide RCOOX (where X can be F, Cl, Br, I) Amides RCONH 2 But carbonyl compounds centres majorly on alkanals and alkanones because their functional group is only carbonyl group and nothing … Ketones, common … – Aldehydes & Ketones Carbonyl compounds have a general formula CnH2nO and contain a >C=O group which is present in aldehydes H-C=O as well as in R 2 C=O ketones. Notes for the CIE O Level Chemistry – 18: Carbonyl Compounds. endobj 18 Carbonyl Compounds. Introduction. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The chemistry and uses of acids, bases and salts, 18.1 Introduction to Aldehydes and Ketones, Summary of Qualitative Analysis of Organic, Chemistry – Ionic and covalent bonding, polymers and materials, Chemical Analysis using paper chromatography, Calculating masses in reactions – 3 important steps, Calculating the percentage mass of an element in a compound. stream Chapter 16: Aldehydes and Ketones (Carbonyl Compounds) The Carbonyl Double Bond . �Go��O��0T�����,L����i���/'���y�����;��3)�卸��_T/� ���ן|���Rn�Y�t�5����=+������Z���-ӶY"�I���ȯE�4Z�AA:{EGǯ�h櫡�J�V�`�)�����v�B!��_��qx ��T�p��`B�(�HJ�'�K%�uw������Y���� Oxidation of alcohols involves the formation of a Carbon – Oxygen double bond with cleavage of an O-H and C-H bonds. <>>> ��a`��x$u�: �(!<8JX�$�d�m̚��X�Dȥ�M�!̔��"�6"�$�R�'s��W��6h���f�yQMY>�"e�`@�J��cK{��e�ŝ2 W�J�M�t�0�$�/�~/1�.I�����Q��2ܲz 6.1.2 Carbonyl Compounds Carbonyls: Aldehydes and Ketones. (j) differentiate between aldehyde and ketone based on the results of, (k) explain the reactions of carbonyl compounds with the structure CH3C=O with, (l) explain that natural compounds such as. (a) write the general formula for carbonyl compounds: aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and ketones; (b) name aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and ketones according to the IUPAC nomenclature; (c) describe structural and optical isomerism in carbonyl compounds; (d) state the physical properties of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and ketones; (e) write the equations for the preparation of aldehydes and ketones; (f) explain the reduction reactions of aldehydes and ketones to primary and secondary alcohols respectively through catalytic hydrogenation reaction and with LiA1H4; (g) explain the use of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent as a simple test to detect the presence of >C=O groups; (h) explain the mechanism of the nucleophilic addition reactions of hydrogen cyanide with aldehydes and ketones; (j) differentiate between aldehyde and ketone based on the results of simple tests as exemplified by Fehling‟s solution and Tollens‟ reagent; (k) explain the reactions of carbonyl compounds with the structure CH3C=O with alkaline aqueous solution of iodine to give triiodomethane (iodoform test); (l) explain that natural compounds such as glucose, sucrose and other carbohydrates which have the >C=O group; (m) explain the characteristics of glucose as a reducing sugar.