4.Mean dP/dt ± SE in pharynx and esophagus. The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) was studied using the slow pull-through technique.

(24), on the other hand, did find a higher dP/dt in the proximal esophagus. Mayrand and Diamant (17) gave normal volunteers amyl nitrite, a smooth muscle relaxant, and mapped the esophagus manometrically. For analysis, the studies were loaded onto a computer and the tracing was displayed on the screen. The innervation of striated musculature of the esophagus has some characteristics that are unique. Ten water swallows were repeated. Between these two zones is a transitional zone where the two muscle types gradually change (20). This assumption has been verified in the opossum, where it was shown that the trough in esophageal peristaltic amplitude is located within the histologically determined transition zone (14). Strong positive correlations between dP/dt and amplitude of swallows was also found for the 11 healthy controls (pharynx r = + 0.99; proximal esophagus r = +0.86; distal esophagus r = + 0.92,P < 0.05 for all). The dP/dt in the pharynx is 9 times higher than in the proximal and 13 times higher than in the distal esophagus (* P < 0.001). Copyright © 1998 the American Physiological Society, IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, Vol.

Infórmanos sobre este tipo de ejemplos para que sean editados o dejen de mostrarse. These relationships are shown in Fig 5. The slopes of the proximal and distal esophagus were not significantly different. The presence or absence of a distinct pressure trough in the middle esophagus was also identified. Third, resistance to contraction and the geometry of lumen closure could differ between the three sites studied. Um diesen Artikel zu kommentieren, melde Dich bitte an.

Fußwurzel noch die gleichen Bezeichnungen wie am Rumpf gelten, verwendet man an der Hand bzw. Some observations on the innervation of the striated muscle in the mouse oesophagus—an electron microscope study. Three of these transducers, one circumferential (distal) and two unidirectional, spaced 5 cm apart, were used in both the distal and proximal esophagus. Fig. Normal motility recordings were reviewed to test the hypotheses that the dP/dt in the proximal esophagus is higher than that in the distal esophagus due to the differences of velocity of contraction between the two muscle types.
Las traducciones vulgares o familiares suelen estar marcadas con rojo o naranja. In the cat maximum shortening velocity of esophageal striated muscle is 50% less than that of soleus muscle.

Hospitals, Graduate, One Graduate Plaza, Philadelphia, PA 19146. Radial and longitudinal asymmetry of human pharyngeal pressures during swallowing. The proximal esophageal dP/dt was only 1.4 times higher than the distal in the patients having normal motility studies and 1.5 times higher in the controls, both being much less than the expected factor of 10–50. We studied both a small group of healthy volunteers and a larger group of patients with normal esophageal motility studies. Contraction of skeletal muscle and neuromuscular transmission: function of smooth muscle. Again, regression equations indicate that the slope in the pharynx (y = 114 + 11.7x) is approximately 10 times steeper than that in the proximal (y = 59 + 2.2x) or distal (y = 8 + 0.9x) esophagus.Fig. Dazu wird der lateinische Wortstamm in der Regel mit der Endsilbe -al versehen, zum Beispiel, Mit Präfixen wie sub (unter) und supra (über) können Positionen relativ zu dem Körperteil oder Organ angegeben werden, zum Beispiel. Obige Begriffe sind in der Tieranatomie ausschließlich am Kopf erlaubt. Our data confirm the presence of the well-established pressure trough in the middle esophagus (11, 19, 24), although noted in less than one-third of the subjects in both groups using the station manometric protocol in our study. Während sich die standardsprachlichen Lagebezeichnungen wie „oben“ oder „unten“ je nach Körperposition ändern können, sind die anatomischen Lagebezeichnungen eindeutig, denn sie sind relativ zum Körper und damit unabhängig von seiner Position. A lower mean contraction amplitude was found in the middle esophagus (56 ± 4.6 mmHg) than in the proximal or distal esophagus or in the pharynx (P < 0.001, Fig.3). However, there are some morphological peculiarities pertaining to the innervation of this tissue. All studies were performed after at least a 4-h fast. Two- tailedP values ≤0.05 were considered significant. Los términos proximal y distal se utilizan para describir partes de una característica que están cerca o distante de la masa principal del cuerpo. Measurement of human esophageal tone in vivo. However, peristalsis is relatively homogeneous along the esophagus, and no data suggest that there is more resistance in the proximal esophagus (12). The human esophagus is composed of striated muscle proximally and of smooth muscle distally with a transition zone between the two. We also assumed that the biomechanical characteristics of muscle contraction translate into the pressure profile in the esophagus. The catheter was then repositioned with the most proximal transducer being located 1 cm below the distal border of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), thus placing the two distal transducers at 6 and 11 cm below the UES. Unlike ordinary striated muscle, which is innervated by myelinated fibers, studies in the mouse and rat have found only unmyelinated nerve fibers innervating motor end plates of striated muscle of esophageal origin (9, 22).

Although these studies demonstrate that striated muscle of the esophagus contracts slower than ordinary striated muscle, the extent of this difference does not explain the 9- to 10-fold higher dP/dt of the pharynx compared with the proximal esophagus found in the present study. The zone in between, accounting for 34% and 41%, respectively, was composed of a mixture of smooth and striated musculature. The slope of the combined regression line is eight times less steep than that of the pharynx (y = 138 + 6.9 x, P < 0.001). Proximal ist das Gegenteil von distal. Entsprechend unterscheidet man die Richtungen: In der Bildgebung des Kopfes werden Schnitte entlang dieser Körperebenen wie folgt benannt: Anatomische Hauptrichtungen am Beispiel des Pferdes, weitere anatomische Richtungen am Beispiel des Hundes, Weitere allgemeine Lage- und Richtungsbezeichnungen, Lage- und Richtungsbezeichnungen am Rumpf, Lage- und Richtungsbezeichnungen an den Gliedmaßen, Lage- und Richtungsbezeichnungen bei Körperhöhlen, Adjektivbildungen zu weiteren Körperteilen, Lage- und Richtungsbezeichnungen an den Zähnen, Sonstige Lage- und Richtungsbezeichnungen, https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anatomische_Lage-_und_Richtungsbezeichnungen&oldid=200658310, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“. The esophagus: anatomy and developmental anomalies. In Bezug auf die Medianebene (Spiegelebene der Körpersymmetrie) unterscheidet man: Neben den üblichen Bezeichnungen für die Hauptrichtungen verwendet man in der Humananatomie im Bereich des Rumpfes häufig die Begriffe. Kontraktile Eigenschaften der quergestreiften Muskelfasern des Ösophagus im Vergleich mit ausgewählten Skelettmuskeln der Ratte.
These included 7 females and 4 males with a median age of 41 yr (range 21–61 yr). A slower contraction velocity of striated muscle of esophageal origin may also result from a delay of electromechanical coupling. The histological composition of the esophageal musculature translates into functional parameters. Mean values were not significantly different from those at corresponding sites in the patients (P > 0.05). When the esophagus is studied in vivo, as opposed to isolated muscle preparations, factors other than only the contraction properties of the muscle in question determined our results. 19, No. Stef J. J., Dodds W. J., Hogan W. J., Linehan J. H., Stewart E. T. Intraluminal esophageal manometry: an analysis of variables affecting recording fidelity of peristaltic pressures. The dP/dt of the pharynx was 9–10 times higher than that of the proximal and 13 times higher than that of the distal esophagus in the two study groups. Fachgebiete: Allgemeine Anatomie. This relationship was found both in a small group of healthy controls and a larger group of patients having normal esophageal motility studies.

zum vorderen Ende des Schädels hin orientierte Strukturen verwendet man daher die Begriffe: Für hinten liegende Strukturen verwendet man auch den Begriff: Statt lateral und medial verwendet man am Kopf, insbesondere am Auge, auch die Begriffe: Während bis zur Hand- bzw. Similar results were found in the 11 controls. (18) were exclusively composed of smooth musculature.